Persistence of thyroid hormones disorders in chronic heart failure out patients: “Heart hypothyroidism”

Persistence of thyroid hormones disorders in chronic heart failure out patients: “Heart hypothyroidism”


Although progress in understanding heart failure (HF) has been considerable in recent decades, mortality rates remain high, and estimated increases in HF-related morbidity and mortality suggest that our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome is inadequate. Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate cardiac performance by acting on the heart and vascular system, and maintenance of THs homeostasis is required for proper cardiovascular function [ 1 , 2 ].

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